Category Archives: Letters

An ancient epistolary novel?

One of the most interesting and attractive collections among the Greek letter collections normally labelled as fictitious or pseudepigraphic (i.e. works whose real author was not the one with whom the work is normally associated) is that purporting to be by one Chion of Heraclea (on the Black Sea). A real Chion did exist and was responsible for killing the tyrant of Heraclea, Clearchus, in the middle of the fourth century BCE, but these letters date from the first (or possibly second) century CE.

The letters (17 in number) tell the story of Chion’s journey to Athens to study philosophy with Plato at the Academy. On his way to Athens Chion (anachronistically) meets Xenophon at Byzantium, who happens to arrive there at that time with the Greek army after their long march through Asia Minor, as described in Xenophon’s Anabasis. After five years of study, during which he sends various letters (full of everyday detail, such as 10 to his father, where he reveals he has contributed to the dowry for one of Plato’s grand-nieces), he returns to Heraclea to kill Clearchus. We hear of his plans in the final letters of the collection, the last of which is to Plato, his old teacher.

From the perspective of our project, it’s striking that the manuscripts all reflect the clear chronological and narrative order of the collection (all of the head manuscripts  of the manuscript families and sub-groups contain the letters ordered as 1-17; only a few late manuscripts contain selections from this order, which nevertheless still preserve the order within the selection, e.g. 3-6). This strongly suggests we’re right to read it as a coherent entity, an epistolary novel (or novella), and that its order and structure goes back to the author. The stability of the order of the letters in the manuscripts isn’t found in some other collections, where we also find extensive re-ordering in modern editions. Untangling those re-orderings is also a major focus of our project.

More soon on two more collections which resemble epistolary ‘novels’: Themistocles and Euripides!


Beginning the Project: which collections (and where?)?

The necessary first stage of work for our project on Ancient Letter Collections was  preliminary: which collections should be included in the project? In order to identify definitively the surviving ancient letter collections in Greek and Latin we made use of the databases of both the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae and Thesaurus Linguae Latinae. Our search produced a long list of all the ancient Greek and Latin authors up to ca. 500 CE from whom more than one letter survived. We have distinguished those letters that have survived as citations or quotations in literature from those that have survived as collections (only the latter will form the focus of the project).

The list of Greek and Latin epistolographers is long and contains very many interesting examples. One of them is the collection of letters of the Saints Barsanuphius and his disciple Joannes, two ascetic monks of a monastery in Palestine, in the 6th century CE. They acquired great fame for their holiness and many people (ranging from local monks to bishops and laymen) sought them out for spiritual advice. However, the two monks kept themselves in strict seclusion, and communicated with their enquirers only through letters, transmitted by Seridus, the abbot of the monastery. Over eight hundred letters containing their replies have descended to us as a collection through medieval manuscripts, forming an invaluable source of information about early Christianity. The letters may have been collected by Dorotheos, one of the disciples of the two monks. The transmission of the collection of the letters of Barsanuphius and Joannes and the arrangement of the letters in it will be but one of the project’s collections.

From the beginning of February 2016 the main goal of the project has been to research the manuscript tradition of the letters of each ancient collection in turn and trace its roots. For many ancient authors, especially for those who have been well-studied by modern scholars with detailed critical editions, the collection of information about the tradition in ancient collections is relatively easily detectable. However, for some others who the lack an authoritative critical edition, it is necessary to research further into manuscript catalogues for relevant information about the transmission and order of the letters in order to identify the roots of each collection in antiquity.

We’ve begun with Greek fictional and pseudepigraphic letter collections, more on  which very soon!


Research Associate joins the Project Team

Welcome to the inaugural blogpost of the Ancient Letter Collections Project at Manchester!

The project begins on 1 December 2016 and the team is now complete: we are delighted to announce the appointment of Dr Antonia Sarri as the project’s Research Associate. Dr Sarri is an expert in ancient epistolography, papyrology and the transmission of texts. She completed her PhD at UCL in 2011, on literary and documentary papyri from Oxyrhynchus (the transmission of the text of Xenophon’s Anabasis also formed a major part of the PhD). Dr Sarri has worked as Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Heidelberg’s Institut für Papyrologie’s Research Project (SFB 933) on ‘Material Text Cultures‘ – she has a monograph (Material Aspects of Letter Writing in the Graeco-Roman World) in press with De Gruyter (2017). This book examines the development of letter writing conventions in antiquity and sheds light on changing trends in Graeco-Roman epistolary practice over some eight hundred years.

The first task for the project (which will occupy the first month or so) is to to establish the total number of letter collections to be included in the project, as well as gathering and organising the material for the first group of collections we shall examine.

There will be monthly updates on this blog about the project – watch this space!

Ancient Letter Collections Project

We’re delighted to announce that the AHRC is to fund a four-year project at Manchester on Ancient Letter Collections (£500k), co-ordinated by Prof. Roy Gibson (PI) and Dr Andrew Morrison (CI). The project will begin in December 2016.

The Project:

The letter collections of Greco-Roman antiquity dwarf in total size all of ancient drama or ancient epic put together. Yet, unlike epic or drama, they have little visibility as a distinctive area of study. This is due in large part to the fact that no one definitively knows – because no one has thought to ask – how many letter collections actually survive from antiquity. This project will establish for the first time how many such collections survive. More significantly, through diachronic critical review of each collection to survive from the fourth century B.C. to the fifth century A.D., the project sets itself the task of establishing the study of ancient letter collections as a discrete and unified field. Included in that survey are numerous foundational texts of ancient literature and thought, from the letter collections of Plato through those of Cicero and the Christian New Testament to Saint Augustine’s collections in later antiquity. From this survey it will emerge that – like ancient drama or epic – there is significant generic unity across time, above all in terms of formal features, despite differences in content and focus between individual texts.

Alongside the creation of a field of study, it is an important part of this project to establish how ancient letter collections were ordered and read. A good number of surviving ancient letter collections – perhaps the majority – are available only in standard modern editions which have abandoned the distinctive ordering that is found in the ancient manuscripts of these collections. For example, Cicero’s Letters to Friends show a particular ordering by addressee or theme in all ancient manuscripts; but modern editors have re-ordered these letters entirely by chronology, thus obliterating the format in which the letters were read for first 1,500 years of their history. By seeking to establish how each letter collection to survive from antiquity was originally arranged in its manuscript form, we aim to recover, and promote the importance of, distinctively ancient reading practices in relation to letter collections.

The project will result in two substantial books: i) a critical review of each of the c. 70 surviving Greco-Roman letter collections before 500 A.D., and ii) an accompanying synoptic interpretative monograph.
The major component of the critical review is a series of cross-referenced discursive essays. Each essay will include the following information for each surviving letter collection:
a) basic information on authors, dates and other works;
b) total number of letters in the collection and total number of addressees (in the largest surviving version of the collection);
c) a detailed descriptive essay on the main patterns of arrangement visible in the available manuscripts, including key information on the earliest evidence available for an existing collection (and whether the arrangements visible in the manuscripts go back to antiquity or even the author’s hand).
d) an essay-survey of modern editions and short critical bibliography of significant items.
The synoptic interpretative monograph – building on the foundations of the critical review – will look at the field as a whole and ask questions about wider patterns of organization and associated reading practices.

The project will also include lots of impact and outreach activities, one of which will be regular posts on this blog once the project gets under way in December 2016.


In the first week of September, scholars from Sydney to Cairo converged on Manchester for heady talk about papyrus fragments. Kate Cooper reports on the John Rylands Research Institute’s symposium, From Egypt to Manchester, Unravelling the John Rylands Papyrus Collection.

Robeta Mazza explaining the so-called ‘last supper amulet’ (P Rylands Greek Add. 1166) to Campbell Price:

Plato’s letters and their reception

This is the first post in our new Classics & Ancient History research blog: the idea is to spread the word about the research being carried out in the Dept by academic staff and PhD students. Please do get in touch with us (via if something grabs your attention – we’d be delighted to hear from you.

One of the things we’re hoping the blog will allow us to do is highlight the papers given weekly at our research seminar, so here goes …

‘Plato, Plato’s Epistles and Greek fictional letters’ (Andrew Morrison, Manchester, 7 Nov. 2013)

There are thirteen letters (or ‘epistles’) attributed to Plato which have been preserved along with the dialogues (e.g. the Republic, Protagoras, Gorgias, etc.). All are written in the voice of Plato (unlike the dialogues): there has been a long debate about whether any of the letters are really by Plato or an imitator (or imitators), which has obscured study of the letters themselves, even though these are very interesting in their own right. Recently this has started to change – there’s a lot of work going on at the moment on the letters, and there was recently an excellent conference at UCL on them.

Some are more famous than others – the most famous of all is the Seventh Letter, in which Plato recounts his entanglement with the tyrants of Syracuse on Sicily and explains why his attempts to educate Dionysius II as a philosopher failed so miserably. But the collection as a whole is also interesting: there’s a strong self-justifying, defensive tone running through much of it (which perhaps hints at the origin of some of the letters and/or their collection together as a group), and many of the letters are very epistolary in character – they make great play of their ‘letteriness’ and even raise questions about their own authenticity and how they came to survive. They also show Plato building up a network of epistolary friendships (esp. with the philosopher Archytas of Tarentum) which help him escape from the clutches of Dionysius II and return to Athens.

There’s a growing recognition that the letters of Plato play an important role in the history of ancient letters, especially for those letters purporting to be by famous philosophers and statesmen of antiquity, such as Themistocles, Solon, Anacharsis, Democritus, Diogenes, Crates, et al., usually labelled as ‘Greek fictional letters’. I think this is right, but tracing the presence of Plato’s letters in these collections (of which there are many) is a large task. I’ve begun by looking in particular at some collections where we might expect Plato to be particularly relevant, that is the letters purporting to be by Chion of Heraclea, who was a pupil of Plato, and the collection of letters attributed to Socrates and various Socratics. This latter collection also includes letters by Plato (these are different from the thirteen Platonic letters transmitted with the dialogues) and Xenophon. There are also some other letters found elsewhere attributed to Plato and Xenophon. I think it’s possible to see that these letters do regularly engage with the thirteen Platonic letters, but in strikingly different ways: the letters of Chion are reminiscent of the Platonic letters in their defence of Plato (who in that collection educates a tyrant-killer, rather than a tyrant), while the letters of Socrates, for example, suggest a philosopher far less willing to entangle himself with dangerous tyrants than the Plato of the Seventh Letter.